They are all organic residues of plant and animal origin, ie all fresh to completely decomposed plant
parts and all living and dead soil microorganisms. The use of organic matter for the purpose of
Increasing soil productivity has been known since ancient times and was the main and only way
improving the fertility of the fields.
Compost has very good soil-improving properties and can be used in agricultural crops, mainly organic but also traditional, in the garden and in pots on the balcony as a natural fertilizer that enriches the soil with nutrients and organic matter.
The organic substance Organic fertilizer – Compost for avocado cultivation is the most important, modern and complex component of the soil. In our country it does not exceed 1%. The useful percentage is at least 5%. It consists of millions of different chemical components. The organic substance with the slow decomposition of its elements provides the plants with nutrients that they need. When added to light soils it makes them more cohesive and with better plasticity and heavy ones thinner and less plastic (they do not stick). The addition of organic matter to the soil is considered necessary.
The amount to be added is that which has been removed during the previous crops and is determined by the chemical
Ready-made compost, that is, it has “matured”, is an ideal supplement for our garden soil during planting as it improves drainage, aeration and the function of beneficial soil microorganisms.
SOIL ORGANIC SUBSTANCE (Organic Fertilizer – Compost for avocado cultivation)
In recent years there has been a growing interest in the use of organic matter, the production of organic agricultural products and the need to protect the environment. When we add organic matter to the soil, due to the soil-climatic conditions characterized by long periods of high temperatures, low rainfall, high soil pH and a large percentage of calcium carbonate in the soil, its percentage does not increase.
Organic matter affects both the physical and chemical properties of soils.
Advantages of compost
• Reduces the plasticity and consistency of heavy soils while increasing correspondingly light.
• It is a substrate for the growth of microorganisms
• Creates stable agglomerates and generally improves soil structure.
• Increases the ability to retain moisture, the I.A.K. and soil regulatory capacity.
• Contributes significantly to soil fertility because it is a source of nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur.
• Soil enrichment – nutrients, organic matter
• Reduction of production costs (purchase of fertilizers)
• Physical properties of soil (porosity, erosion, compaction)
Compost to save water and water resources
Increase water capacity: The organic substance (Organic Fertilizer – Compost for avocado cultivation) has the ability to retain large
amounts of moisture and its addition to the soil increases the moisture available to the roots. This means that when added to light sandy soils, they retain more water, reducing losses. At the same time, the individual soil grains are joined and its structure is improved. In dull clay soils it causes an increase in porosity and permeability thus improving the drainage and aeration of the soil.
Compost Effect on pH
When we have the decomposition of the organic matter, various acids are produced, as a result of which the acidity of the soil increases. This has as
resulting in a decrease in soil pH, which is very desirable because the soils of Greece in general
are characterized as alkaline, ie have a pH greater than 7.0. Low pH in the soil facilitates the uptake of various trace elements, especially iron and zinc.
Impact on alternative capacity:
Soil alternative capacity (I.A.K.) is one of its most important chemical properties. It expresses the ability of the soil to retain the various nutrients in an assimilable form. In other words, we can say that with
addition of organic matter we increase the storage capacity of the soil in nutrients, limiting their leaching.
Microorganism growth substrate:
The organic substance provides the organic substrate for the action and multiplication of various microorganisms. Result of this
action is the decomposition and release of various nutrients and the enrichment of the soil into elements that can be easily absorbed by the roots.
The soil content of organic matter is a property that plays a key role in its fertility and therefore is of direct interest to farmers as it affects tree productivity and fertilization costs. Growers should take measures to maintain and increase organic matter and biological activity in the soil, especially in soils at high risk of compaction and erosion. Indicatively, some measures for the preservation and increase of soil organic matter are mentioned:
Organic fertilization of parcels with the addition of digested manure, when it is easy to find, or other organic substances.
Artificial vegetation of the soil. In autumn, the plant suitable for the soil type is sown (legumes, cereals) – usually in strips between the rows of trees – and at the appropriate stage of growth they are incorporated into the soil (green manure).
MAINTENANCE AND GROWTH OF ORGANIC SUBSTANCE
PLANT AND ANIMAL RESIDUES
RESIDUES OF PLANT AND FOREST ORIGIN
RESIDENTS OF ANIMAL ORIGIN
. Digested during the winter
Soil incorporation ( odor, ες losses)
Using 1 ton / dec. manure with moisture 50% and content of N 2.0%, P 1.6%, K 2.0% (by dry weight) add
Amount of nitrogen = 10 kg
Equivalent to 50 kg 21-0-0
Quantity of Phosphorus = 8 kg
Equivalent to 42 kg 0-44-0
Quantity of potassium = 10 kg
Equivalent to 25 kg 0-0-50
Type of solid manure
Estimated Concentration N (%) on dry
Average mineralization rate (S.A.)
Cows 2 0.25
Pigs 3 0.3
Poultry 4 0.5
Sheep and goats 2 0.25
ADDITION OF NUTRITIONS IN KILOS / DEC
Or type of plantation and stage
chemical composition of soil, manure
area (vulnerable, slope)
period (climatic conditions)
QUANTITY OF APPLICATION
Εφαρμογή The application of large amounts of manure is not only economically unprofitable but also ecologically unacceptable because it can pollute the natural environment. This is because the aquifer is polluted with nitrates and the atmosphere with ammonia and nitrogen oxides. They also contain significant amounts of phosphates which easily contaminate aquatic ecosystems.
CAN SOMEONE USE LARGE AMOUNTS OF DUN?
Areas sensitive to nitrate pollution
Determination criterion: groundwater nitrate level> 50 mg / l
Οργαν The organic substance, manure, provides nutrients to plants in organic form. Plants, however, can only absorb the various elements in an inorganic form. The fertilizers are already in inorganic form so they are ready at any time
to be assimilated by plants.
IF FERTILIZER PROVIDES ALL THE NUTRITIONAL THEN WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE WITH FERTILIZERS?
How to apply manure:
a) (undigested) unleavened
Loss of part of N and organic matter
N fewer losses
Danger of “BURNING” of plants
HOW TO APPLY FERTILIZER
Fresh manure due to the fact that it is often a source of seeds, weeds, contains high percentages in water, moisture thus increasing transportation costs and also has a high salt content.
It is good and recommended before use to pre-treat it, ie fermentation, growth and action of bacteria both aerobic and anaerobic which at high temperatures decompose organic compounds into simpler, inorganic and directly assimilable by plants, also destroying weed seeds and reduce the salt content.
The placement of digested manure in the field has immediate effects in terms of providing available nutrients to the plants. The addition of such manure can be done at any time. When digesting manure is to be used it is best to produce it in the soil when there is soil moisture for a period of about three months before planting.
DIGESTED OR DESTROYED DUNG?
Chemical analysis is considered extremely necessary to be able to do a number of things such as:
. Identify plantation / field problems such as salinity, acidity, micronutrient and macronutrient deficiencies.
. Based on the results, to be able to make the fertilization program of the plantation / next year.
Λαμβά They are repeated every 2-3 years and are the main tool of the Agronomist-Consultant for the preparation of the program
fertilization of the crop.
WHY CHEMICAL SOIL ANALYSIS IS CONSIDERED SO IMPORTANT
The use of manure in agriculture is the best possible solution as it is the most environmentally friendly method
For our garden, a good ratio of fluffy soil, well-drained manure and compost is 2: 1: 1 to add, in order to improve the planting soil and at the same time to provide nutrients for the growth of our plants